Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve which causes loss of peripheral nerve fibres most commonly due to raised intraocular pressure of your optic nerve. It can be hereditary so it is important to have family members examined as well.
It is diagnosed by a multitude of tests including pressure check, examination of the optic nerve at the back of the eye, Humphrey Visual Field examination and OCT examination of the optic nerve. Once diagnosed, it is usually controlled by topical eye drops and /or laser treatment. Occasionally surgery is required. It is essential to keep a check on glaucoma for stability at frequent intervals as there is no cure for glaucoma and vision loss from disease cannot be restored. Narrow angle glaucoma is another type of glaucoma where due to blockage of drainage of intraocular fluids, the pressure in the eye can rise to dangerous levels causing a red painful eye with blurred vision.
It is assessed by checking the drainage angles using a special lens known as Goniolens. It is treated by making an artificial passage to help drain the fluid. It is a simple procedure done under local anaesthesia by Yag Laser. People with normal intraocular pressure can also develop glaucoma and people with raised intraocular pressure may not develop glaucoma.